Even if you're confident about what you are saying, filler words like "Um" can creep in and make you sound unsure. A bunch of them in a row make you sound like a slack-jawed cretin. If you want to get a handle on them, this quick reference chart has a ton of handy tips.
Photo: 20th Century Fox
This graphic, from the London Speaker Bureau, has a wealth of tips on how to avoid "Um" and other filler words. There are the obvious things like slowing down, but you can also do more proactive things like preparing your thoughts into organised chunks, or even keeping your hands out of your pockets.
Here's How You Can Stop Saying 'Um' Forever [Make Use Of]