It's easy to think of negotiating as a confrontation, but thinking of it as "joint problem solving" may yield better results. This is also called Principled Negotiation, and it involves four main factors.
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In a paper published by the United States Military Academy (USMA), researchers explain the concept, which is basically the idea that two parties can negotiate effectively even though they have different interests at stake. The approach was developed by Harvard Law School professor Roger Fisher and his colleague William Ury, founder of the Harvard Program on Negotiation. We've talked about this idea before, but here are the four factors that have to take place in order for Principled Negotiation to work, according to the USMA:
1) Separate the people from the problem
2) Focus on interests, not positions
3) Invent options for mutual gain
4) Insist on using objective criteria
This is also called the "circle of value", and it's meant to satisfy both parties' interests as much as possible. Basically, the idea is to approach the negotiation objectively and logically to avoid it to turning into a confrontation. Instead of focusing on what they have to give up, both parties are free to come up with a creative solution that's mutually beneficial. For more detail, head to the paper at the link below.