The full-blown version of Visual Studio its still limited to Windows machines, but if you want a similar experience on non-Microsoft platforms, the open-source Visual Studio Code is about as close as you can get. Official builds are available for macOS and Linux and thanks to a fellow by the name of Jay Rodgers, you can get it on Chromebook and the Raspberry Pi.
Installation instructions can be found on Rodgers' dedicated site, Head Melted, along with a helpful FAQ. Rodgers makes it clear that they're not official builds, but he has tested them for the ARMHF and ARM64 platforms.
While there's no shortage of programming IDEs for ChromeOS or the Raspberry Pi, if you're a Visual Studio Code fan, it's nice to know your environment of choice just got a little more portable. You should even be able to run VS Code-compatible extensions, as long as they don't have any platform-specific dependencies.