Making pickles is a time-honoured tradition for many, but they take time to get right. If you're going to eat those pickles soon, a quick pickle might be more your style, and this guide from Cook's Illustrated shows you how to pickle almost anything: Fennel, carrots, and yes, even cucumbers.
The full guide (linked below) has four pickle recipes -- a standard cucumber pickle, carrot pickles, fennel pickles, and cabbage pickles. The best part is that they can be used with whatever vegetable you're working with. Have parsnips? Use the carrot recipe. Beetroot would work well too (although there's a link to a beetroot pickle recipe at the bottom of the page). Onions could benefit from the fennel recipe, and so on. After you've read them, you can sub in just about any vegetable of a similar texture that you like, and the basics remain the same.
One thing worth noting is that these quick pickles are all designed to be enjoyed in a short period of time. They're not pickle recipes suitable for long-term storage in your basement. That also makes them more convenient though - no sterilising jars and careful temperature management. Just make sure you eat them up in a few weeks. Hit the link below to read more - and more suggestions for different pickles.
How to Make Quick Homemade Pickles [Cook's Illustrated]