While the etymology of many words we use today has faded into obscurity, there are some that are more offensive than we can ever imagine. There may be some words you use every day without a thought to their original meanings. Here are ten that it pays to be aware of.
Covered mouth image from Shutterstock
noun | bug·ger | \ˈbə-gər, ˈbu̇-gər\ 1. sodomite 2. a worthless person 3. a small or annoying thing eg. "put down my keys and now I can't find the buggers"
As well as being a noun as described above, Australians tend to use this word as a tamer expletive than some of its four-lettered cousins. However, though many people know its secondary meaning as 'a sodomite' or 'sodomy', not many know that the word was originally racially charged as well. Bugger comes from Middle English bougre which was derived from Medieval Latin Bulgarus — a literal translation for 'Bulgarian'. This came by through association with a Bulgarian religious sect called the Bogomils, whose ways were so unorthodox that they were accused of sodomy.
Use instead: Depending on the context in which you're using the word, you might instead call someone a 'nuisance'. If you're use it as an expletive… well, there's really no reason not to enjoy the four-lettered classics.
adjective | up·pi·ty | \ˈə-pə-tē\ •putting on or marked by airs of superiority, eg. "uppity technicians" "a small uppity country"
The word uppity is commonly used to put down someone who is seen to be acting above their station — putting on airs and speaking out of turn, generally being a nuisance. While the word can be applied to pretty much anyone these days, its origins were in the United States' racist heyday, during segregation. In this period, Southerners used the term "uppity" to describe black people who didn't know their place in society. The word doesn't sound so casual anymore when you consider that people have likely been lynched at one point in history due to being too "uppity".
Use instead: 'Arrogant' and 'pretentious' are both great words to knock someone down a peg, without those nasty racist overtones.
noun | \ˈjip\ •cheat, swindler, eg. "Is that all they give you? What a gyp!" "we were very disappointed when the “free weekend in Las Vegas” offer turned out to be a gyp"
"Gyp" or "gypped" has universally come to mean being cheated or swindled, and though there's no solid evidence for the origin of this slang term, it's highly likely that it is derived from 'gypsy', a derogative term for the Romani people. While many people know little of "gypsies" other than what we see in Disney movies and costume shops, the Romani people have a long history of persecution — including their attempted genocide at the hands of the Nazis during World War II.
Use instead: 'Swindled' is an oldie but a goodie, or if you're feeling ripped off, 'highway robbery' is a fun phrase without the racist undertones.
#4 Paddy wagon
noun | pad·dy wagon | \ˈpa-dē-\ •an enclosed motortruck used by police to carry prisoners, eg. "The cooperative family was being escorted into the paddy wagon"
While the racist meaning of paddy wagon is more overt to anyone who stops to think about it, it's also so ingrained in our lexicon that it's hard to stop and think in the first place. For those who are blissfully unaware, paddy wagon is the slang term for a police car. And where it came from? "Paddy", short for "Patrick", was a pejorative term for any Irishman — a group who have been the butt of many jokes for much of the last century. Whether the term came into use because there were many Irish criminals or because of a large number of Irish policemen, the association is still not the best one to be making. Interestingly enough the similar term 'meat wagon' seems to be used by people misinterpreting this phrase as 'patty wagon'.
Use instead: "Police car" or "police van" should suffice.
noun | hoo·li·gan | \ˈhü-li-gən\ %bull;a usually young man who does noisy and violent things as part of a group or gang, eg. "shouldn't you hooligans be in school instead of threatening old ladies?"
While the term 'hooligan' is fairly dated these days — I can only seem to think of that crotchety old man yelling "you hooligans get off my lawn!" — other forms of the word are still in common usage. 'Hooliganism' in particular is one that the media seems keen to trot out as often as they can. But as in the case of 'paddy wagon' hooligan originally came from some poor sod's surname — Houlihan. The name was used for a rowdy fictional Irish family in a popular drinking song, and soon after the word came to be a catchall for anyone displaying rowdy, violent tendencies.
Use instead: 'Hoodlum' is a word with a longer, non-racist history. 'Hoon' is also a uniquely Australian take on the concept.
noun | Es·ki·mo | \ˈes-kə-ˌmō\ •a member of a group of peoples of northern Canada, Greenland, Alaska, and eastern Siberia
Far from being those cute, fur-wearing, nose-kissing people of the Arctic regions, this is actually an offensive term for the Inuit people. The reason? The word 'Eskimo' comes from the Danish loanword 'ashkimeq,' literally translated to 'eaters of raw meat'. Calling an extensive group of different societies by such a gross generalisation is a great way to limit understanding of the entire culture.
Use instead: The proper term is Inuit, meaning "the people". That's it, unless you know the proper name of each individual nation.
#7 Hip hip hooray!
•an exclamation of congratulations especially in response to a call for 'Three cheers for' the person.
The racist origin of this common celebratory cry is controversial, but it potentially stems from the Hep Hep Riots — anti-Semetic riots conducted throughout Germany in the 19th century. The participants in these demonstrations reportedly cheered "hep hep" as they chased Jews from their homes. "Hep hep" was a traditional German call that shepherds would use while herding their sheep, but was given another meaning entirely in 1819 when it was Jews who were hunted under this rallying cry.
Use instead: 'Hooray' by itself is completely harmless, or the more old-timey 'hoorah'.
#8 No Can Do
informal + humorous •used in speech to say that one cannot do something that he or she has been asked or told to do, eg. “Can you give me a ride to work tomorrow?” “Sorry— no can do. My car is in the shop.”
The game of Chinese Whispers has been renamed in the past few years for its racist connotations, but few know that the common phrase "no can do" is a similar riff on the idea that Chinese people speak broken English. While it has since moved into common parlance, this phrase was originally used as a mimicry of a Chinese person with a heavy accent — and the same is true of 'long time, no see'.
Use instead: Going back to the origin of the phrase "I can't" or "I can't do it" would be your safest option.
#9 Basket case
noun 1. a person who is very nervous, tired, etc., and is not able to think or act normally 2. something (such as a company or a government) that is in very bad condition and close to failure eg. "I was so worried about losing my job that I was a complete basket case."
Oddly enough the term basket case is not commonly used by its dictionary meaning today, and seems to now have connotations of someone being crazy (perhaps being mixed up with terms like head case and mental case). As it was originally used, however, a basket case refers to someone who is useless or not functioning well. The reason for this has its origins in WWI, when a 'basket case' was someone who had lost all four limbs and therefore had to be carried around in a basket. Not the best mental image and potentially offensive to amputees.
Use instead: 'Nervous wreck' or 'bundle of nerves' are nicely evocative terms that don't risk making fun of quadruple amputees.
noun | hys·te·ria | \his-ˈter-ē-ə, -ˈtir-\ 1. a state in which your emotions (such as fear) are so strong that you behave in an uncontrolled way 2. a situation in which many people behave or react in an extreme or uncontrolled way because of fear, anger, etc. eg. "A few of the children began to scream, and soon they were all caught up in the hysteria."
Hysterical's modern usage is problematic enough by itself, with the word most often being applied to women — looking at the first dictionary definition, you might be able to tell why that's an issue. However the connotations behind calling a woman 'hysterical' have far-reaching implications beyond even the 2011 film Hysteria.
The term comes from the Greek 'hysterikos', meaning 'of the womb' or 'suffering in the womb'. The Greeks believed that the uterus was the direct cause of a number of female ailments, based on the premise that the uterus was essentially its own organism. The womb was said to be so obsessed with creating children that it would wander the body, pressing up against other organs and causing medical havoc unless it was pregnant. Yup.
Use instead: Try 'overwrought', 'frenzied' or 'agitated' if you really have to call someone 'hysterical' without resorting to womb-based comparisons.