Amazon Web Services (AWS) has had a Sydney region since November 2012. Now it is expanding its Australian range, adding an edge location in Melbourne for its Route 53 and CloudFront services.
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Route 53 is used for DNS management (and highly popular amongst AWS' local customers), while CloudFront handles content distribution. The Melbourne location will automatically be used for customers for whom its the closest option; you don't need to change your existing AWS deployment to take advantage of it.
Undoubtedly one influence on AWS' expansion is the planned launch of Melbourne and Sydney centres for Microsoft's Azure cloud service later this year. AWS has also added a second Direct Connect site at Global Switch's Sydney data centre in Ultimo.