In a recent update to Google's new tab page, that beloved "Recently closed" menu disappeared. Fortunately, you can still access your recent tabs via Chrome's menu under the "hamburger" icon.
Simply click the menu button on the right-hand side of Chrome's nav bar and you'll see "Recent tabs" just beneath "Bookmarks". It's a little bit more cumbersome, but it's easier than diving into your entire history page (Ctrl-H). Check out PC World's article for more neat tricks in the newest version of Chrome.