Ask LH: How Often Should I Charge My Gadget's Battery To Prolong Lifespan?

Dear Lifehacker, What is the deal with lithium-ion batteries (the kind found in smartphones and laptops)? I've heard lots of different things about how to take care of them, like that they need to be kept charged between 40 per cent and 80 percent, or that they should be drained completely and charged to 100 per cent. What is the ideal configuration to maintain a good battery life to battery health ratio? Sincerely, Befuddled About Batteries

Photo by Nicemonkey/Shutterstock.

Dear Befuddled,

There is a lot of confusion surrounding this issue, mostly because lithium-ion batteries are different from older, nickel-based batteries (which suffered from a nasty memory effect not present in lithium-ion batteries). You're right, though -- charging them incorrectly can decrease their lifespan. Most lithium batteries should last you a few years, but improper care can decrease that lifespan, meaning that your battery will be unable to hold a charge quicker, or unable to hold as big a charge as it used to. So, to clear things up, here's how to actually extend your battery's health as much as possible.

  • Perform shallow discharges. Instead of discharging to zero all the time, lithium-ion batteries do best when you discharge them for a little bit, then charge them for a little bit. The table at the right, from Battery University, shows that discharges to 50 per cent are better for your battery's long-term life than, say, small discharges to 90 per cent or large discharges to zero (since the 50 per cent discharges provide the best number of cycles-to-usage ratio).
  • Don't leave it fully charged. Similarly, lithium-ion batteries don't need to be charged all the way to 100 percent. In fact, they'd prefer not to be -- so the 40-80 per cent rule you heard is a good guideline. When possible, keep it in that range to prolong its life as long as you can. And, if you do charge it to 100 per cent, don't leave it plugged in. This is something most of us do, but it's another thing that will degrade your battery's health.
  • Fully discharge it once a month. This may seem contradictory, but hear us out. While lithium-ion batteries shouldn't be discharged regularly, most modern batteries are what's known as "smart batteries", which means that they can tell you how long you have until your battery dies (e.g. "2 hours, 15 minutes remaining"). This feature can get miscalibrated after a lot of shallow discharges. So manufacturers recommend fully discharging your battery once a month to make sure this stays accurate.
  • Keep it cool. Most people overlook this one. Excess heat is not only bad for your processor (and your lap), but your battery as well. Once again, see the table from Battery University at the right -- which you can click on for a closer view -- a hot battery will degrade in health much quicker than a cool one. As such, we highly recommend using a laptop stand. When it comes to your phone, check out our previous Ask Lifehacker on keeping your phone temperature down.

Keep these things in mind and your battery will last longer. That said, remember that you don't need to be super strict about these things. Don't sacrifice practicality just to keep your battery alive -- if you're in a situation where you don't have a charger, it's OK to discharge it to zero, or charge it up to 100 per cent if you want to do so for a long plane ride. Remember that your battery is going to die in a few years, no matter what you do -- even if you just let it sit on a shelf. So don't go overboard: use your battery as you need it. But, if you're just sitting at home or in a coffee shop, these guidelines will help you keep it healthy for as long as possible (and when it's dead, check out what do to when your battery doesn't last as long as it used to).

If you want a more detailed look at how lithium batteries work and how to take care of them, check out the links below from Battery University.

Cheers, Lifehacker

P.S. Got any of your own tips for extending the life of your gadgets' batteries? Share them with us in the comments.

Got your own question you want to put to Lifehacker? Send it using our contact tab on the right.


Comments

    My tip: For laptop battery or other devices (camera) that can run with direct power inlet from wall, take out the battery.

    No charde/discharge - less degradation.

    I have a big laptop that acts as my 2nd desktop maybe of 4 years of its life, the battery only attached to it for 2 months or so in total. And yes, it still holds charge like new.

    Important though, do not attach/detach the battery while your laptop is on. Turn it off, and unplug the power cable from the unit first.

      I do this as well. Using my last laptop for a couple of years in a dock completely buggered the battery. The first time I tried to use it in battery-power mode the "full" charge gave me 4 minutes use.

    Why aren't the devices programmed to charge the batteries in the most efficient manner? Shouldn't they stop charging automatically when you reach 90-something percent, and isolate the battery while you remain on power? It's not something the user should have to worry about. I use mine mostly in the car, where it is alays docked. I'm not going to unplug the power just because it's full.

      I think many android devices are programmed to slow charging at +95%.
      I'm not sure of others though.

      Why don't vegetables chop themselves and throw themselves in my pan. It's something the chef shouldn't have to worry about.

      Take some responsibility you spoilt brat.

        I'm sorry, I thought technology was designed to make things easier/feature rich (sarcasm), while your self-chopping-vegetable sounds good, Danny's idea is excellent and if it hasn't been implemented it should be.

          What Aleks suggests is akin to the chef giving a customer vegetables and telling them to arrange them to form their meal in the most efficient manner. Who's the real brat I ask?

        I agree with Danny and sad face and anyone else that thought gee Aleks is a

    You are interpreting the "depth of discharge" table incorrectly. If you are only discharging the battery by 10% you need to charge it 10 times as often compared to 100% discharge. It may last more cycles, but it will need to be charged more often, so you need to divide the cycle count by the discharge amount.
    So for a 1Ahr battery the chart reads:
    100% 500hours
    50% 750hours
    25% 625hours
    10% 470hours
    Which means shallow discharge is worse that 100% discharge.
    And 50% discharge is much better than either 100% or 0%

      They didn't really explain the cycle properties of a Li-Ion battery properly. If you let it drop to 90%, then charge it, that doesn't count as a cycle. You would have to do that 10 times for it to count as a single cycle. So the 10% DoD would intact be 47,000 discharges/charges, and the large 100% DoD would only be 500 discharges/charges.

    This article is good round up. I'd extend the charging to 100% and then storing the battery without use will kill it quicker also ( as often done with camera batteries).

    There are devices that stop charging when full.

    If only there were options in laptops to only charge up to 80% or 90% by default and have a option to extend it to 100% by user interaction. ( When you know you are going need the extra time)

    But I have only seen this kind off lithium battery treatment in electric cars.

Join the discussion!