While Windows and OS X are only natively compatible with one or two file systems, Linux gives you an almost overwhelming list of compatible filesystems when you install it. The How-To Geek shows us which filesystems work best for your computer's purpose.
Not all filesystems are created equal: some are great for speed, some are better for cross-platform compatibility. And, while most Linux users don't stray too far from the familiar realms of Ext4 and its Ext predecessors, if you're using Linux on something other than a personal computer (say a home theatre PC or a home server), you might be better served using something like XFS or JFS. Furthermore, even the difference between using an SSD in your home computer or not could mean you aren't using the most optimal file system. Hit the link to read more, and if you find you want to use something else, don't fret — you might be able to convert your filesystem without reformatting.
HTG Explains: Which Linux File System Should You Choose? [How-To Geek]