Android and Mac/Windows/Linux: If you don't want to deal with your phone while you're at your computer, free app Android Notifier will send all your phone's call, SMS and battery notifications to your desktop.
Whether you wear noise-cancelling headphones at your desk, or you'd rather just use a full keyboard to reply to SMS messages instead of your phone, you can send those notifications to your computer to better fit into your workflow with Android Notifier. Setting it up is easy; just download and install both Android Notifier and the MacDroidNotifier app, which will send notifications to previously mentioned Growl (If you're using Windows or Linux, you'll need the Android-Notifier-Desktop app instead). It takes a bit of setup, but nothing too difficult — you can get instructions from the project's home page.
You can send notifications over Wi-Fi or Bluetooth and pick whether you want notifications for incoming calls, SMS messages, battery messages and voicemail. Bluetooth setup is pretty easy; Wi-Fi is a bit more involved. It's a pretty nice tool to have around, though, and would probably make a great Tasker task — for example, you could automatically set your phone to forward notifications to your computer whenever your phone is docked.
Android Notifier is a free download for Android phones and Macintosh computers. Windows and Linux users will need Android Notifier on their phone and Android-Notifier-Desktop on their computer.