Many Aussies are confused by our ever-changing local tax rules, so it's no wonder visiting workers can find the experience unnerving. The ATO has a helpful guide to how tax rules apply to visitors working in Australia.
Along with explaining the basic rates and key dates, the guide points out a few useful rules even residents should remember (such as not providing your tax file number in job applications). You can get a print copy from the ATO, but given the size of the document the PDF download is probably sufficient.
Working in Australia [ATO]